Details for Below-Grade Living Space

In This Article
Water in Soil
Waterproofing vs. Dampproofing
Footing Drains
Subslab Moisture Control
Sump Pumps                           View all Foundation & Sitework articles

Musty, damp basements are the norm. For that reason, most people avoid storing anything of value in the basement for fear it will get moldy. If you later finish all or part of a basement without addressing the moisture problems,  the carpeting and furnishings will grow musty and moldy as well, making the living space less than “prime”.

Even with good management of surface water with gutters and proper grading, there will always be high levels of moisture in the soil. If unchecked, the water vapor will migrate into your basement year ’round.

Keeping  moisture out of your basement requires multiple strategies. You only have one chance to build a dry basement economically – during construction –  so it’s worth doing right the first time. Preventing leakage and high moisture levels requires a combined strategy of

  • Drainage of rain water  away from the foundation
  • Granular backfill or drainage board around the foundation
  • Footing drains
  • Capillary breaks between foundation and soil
  • Coatings or membranes to block liquid water and water vapor
  • Insulation for comfort and condensation control

All six components are especially important if you are building a full basement.  However, even with a slab-on-grade or crawlspace, you will want to keep water away from the foundation area. Wet soil around and under any type of foundation will result in higher indoor humidity, greater risk of insect problems, and deterioration of most building materials.

Concrete may be hard as rock and unaffected by moisture, but it readily absorbs liquid water and is porous to water vapor. This makes it a great conduit for transporting moisture into your home. In the worst cases, unmanaged water below a foundation can erode soils and undermine footings.

Water in the Soil

Water can enter your basement two ways: as liquid water or as a gas, called water vapor. Both are important and can cause a variety of problems if ignored by builders.

Water vapor. Except in arid climates, there is a lot of water vapor in the soil, whether it is wet or dry, dense or granular. In fact, if you measure the relative humidity of the soil in most areas, it is usually close to 100%. Since water vapor travels easily though concrete, block, and other masonry materials, you need to protect the foundation with either a coating or membrane that will stop, or at least reduce, the flow of water vapor.

Liquid water. Where foundation drainage is inadequate or the water table too high, liquid water can build up around the foundation and exert hydrostatic pressure, forcing itself through any small opening and into the concrete itself. This often results in true flooding of the basement.

Even without hydrostatic pressure,  however, water from soil in contact with concrete will soak into the concrete by capillary action. Both the soil and concrete act like sponges,  soaking up and transporting water toward the interior of the building. In England, they call this “rising damp.” Place a stalk of celery in red-dyed water to get the idea.

You can see the effects of moisture transmission in the white “efflorescence” often deposited on the basement floors or walls. Moisture passing through the concrete dissolves salts on the way through and carries them to the surface. When the water evaporates into the room, the salt deposits are left behind.

To stop the flow of water under hydrostatic pressure is extremely difficult and requires a basement built like a boat – and even boats have bilge pumps. True waterproofing membranes help, but the best approach is to provide effective drainage that eliminates hydrostatic pressure against the foundation walls or floor.

To stop the capillary transmission of water from soil to concrete requires a capillary break. This means a physical gap between the water or wet soil and the foundation wall. This can be a waterproof membrane material, a layer of granular fill  (gravel or crushed stone), or a manufactured drainage membrane that goes against the basement wall.

Dampproofing retards migration of water vapor through concrete and block walls.

Dampproofing slows down the movement of water vapor from soil to basement, but does NOT prevent water leakage or flooding.

Waterproofing vs. Damproofing

The black coating that you see to nearly all foundation walls is called dampproofing. Dampproofing is a thin layer of asphalt applied to reduce the transmission of water vapor through concrete or block, both of which are very permeable to water vapor.

Dampproofing is not intended to stop liquid water and does not bridge the small shrinkage cracks that occur in every concrete wall. For that level of protection you need a full waterproofing system. At a glance these often look the same.

However, a waterproof coating is much thicker and is flexible enough to bridge small gaps. If it works as planned, it will even stop water that has accumulated around the base of your foundation, exerting hydrostatic pressure against the walls. Read more on Basement Waterproofing and Damproofing.

Footing Drains

Drains around the foundation perimeter should be an essential part of every basement waterproofing system. The best product to use is rigid PVC drain pipe with small holes drilled in two or three rows.  I prefer Schedule 40 pipe – the same thing used for plumbing drains – as it is pretty indestructible. SDR30 is a little thinner and less expensive, but can be used successfully if workers are careful when backfilling. Remember, the holes face downward when installed! That way, rising water flows into the pipe and away from the footings.

How to build a dry basement. Slope soil away from the building. Install footing drains and discharge drains to daylight or a basement sump pump.

CLICK TO ENLARGE                                Footing drains and waterproofing help keep things dry below grade, but gutters and proper grading are the first line of defense against a wet basement.

The perforated piping around the perimeter of the foundation may be called footing drains, perimeter drains, or drain tile – referring to the clay pipes used in the old days.

Rigid vs. Flexible Pipe.  Rigid PVC drain pipe is strong enough to span small irregularities in the gravel bed and withstand a moderate amount of abuse during backfilling. If it ever clogs up, it can be cleaned out with a motorized plumber’s snake. The downside of PVC is the higher cost of materials and installation since joints need to be glued.

The alternative is corrugated pipe made from high-density polyethylene HDPE with slots for drainage.  Because it is flexible, corrugated pipe is easier to install and requires fewer joints. However, it is also easy to crush while backfilling if workers are not careful. In addition, corrugated pipe tends to slow down water flow and trap   debris because of its wavy surface and tendency to follow the ups and downs of the gravel bed.  It may also end up with low points that trap water.

There are also smooth-wall versions of HDPE pipe now sold as double-wall and triple-wall drain pipe. These have better flow characteristics than corrugated product, but are still less durable than rigid PVC and cannot be power augured.  Given the cost to re-excavate and fix a crushed or blocked pipe at a later date – not to mention the potential to flood the basement –  why not use the good stuff the first time?

Slope of pipe. Footings are level so it is tricky to install footing drains with much slope to the outlet. Also, it’s difficult to do the equivalent of finish carpentry in an excavation trench. While a slope of about 1/8” per foot to the drain is ideal, a level footing drain will also get the job done. Just make sure the outlet pipe is solid (no perforations) and sloped a minimum of 1/8 in. per foot to the drainage point.

Rigid PVC footing drains will be covered with gravel and filter fabric and drained to daylight. The dimpled membrane provides drainage and a capillary break along the foundation wall.

Rigid PVC footing drains, with cleanout, are ready to be covered with gravel and filter fabric. The dimpled membrane provides drainage at the foundation wall. Courtesy of Integrity Waterproofing.

Installation.  While some contractors lay the perforated drain pipe on top of the footing, a convenient spot to be sure, it provides little margin for error if the system is loaded to capacity. The drain pipe should be placed low enough that it keeps water away from the top of the footing and well below the slab. In the typical residential foundation, placing the drain a couple of inches below the top of the footing (and at least 6” below the top of the slab) is the optimal location. Digging too deep for the footing drains can undermine the soil under the footing.

To keep the drain pipe from filling with sediment, it must be set in a layer of clean coarse gravel or crushed stone that is fully wrapped in a layer of heavy-duty filter fabric on all sides. After rolling out the filter fabric starting at the top of the footing, spread  3 to 6 in. of stone as a base for the pipe. After laying the pipe, fill the trench to at least 6 in. above the top of the pipe.  Then wrap the filter over the top of the bed, lapping over itself to make a complete seal.

If you plan to backfill with native soil, it’s a good idea to place a minimum of 6 in. of course sand over the top of filter fabric to keep it from clogging prematurely.

Cleanout. Despite your best efforts, these systems may clog up over time. In that case, it’s very useful to have a cleanout for a power auger. As long as the pipe is not physically damaged, a drain cleaning service should be able to remove any blockage and flush the system

Discharge.  Unless you have a high water table, the footing drains shouldn’t get a lot of usage most of the year. They are really meant as a back-up system for surface water that finds its way to the base of the foundation. Still, the water needs somewhere to go, away from the foundation, when it does collect. Always use solid (non-perforated)  pipe from the footing drains to the outlet point.

Drain to daylight. The best option on a sloped site is to drain to daylight by gravity. This has no moving parts and is easy to clean and maintain. The slope should be minimum 1/8 in. per foot, with hardware cloth at the open end to keep out critters. Another option is to bury the end in gravel or crushed stone. This will keep out animals and allow the water to slowly disperse and percolate into the soil.

Drain to sump pump. Most people who cannot drain to daylight, drain to a sump pump in the basement. The sump is a submersible pump that sits in a basin surrounded by stone below the basement floor. It’s important that the pump has enough capacity to meet the load. Tie the footing drains to the sump pit with a solid PVC pipe cast in place through the footings.

Drain to drywells. With well-drained soil, you can drain to one or two large drywells. Keep these far enough away from the house (min. 10 ft.) that you do not return the water back to where it started. Since the performance of drywells is difficult to predict, it would be wise to connect the footing drains to a sump pit as a backup. The pipe can be capped until needed to prevent bringing unwanted water into the basement.


The general recommendation is to backfill with granular material for at least the first 16 inches next to the foundation wall. The purpose is to keep water away from the wall where it might leak through a crack, and to provide a capillary break.  Any water that gets this far should drain freely to the footing drains.

Waterproofing a foundation with a dimpled membrane over an elastomeric coating.

A dimpled membrane provides drainage along a basement wall, as part of a waterproofing system. Courtesy of Integrity Waterproofing.

With a full waterproofing system protected by a dimpled membrane or drainage board, it is generally not be necessary to use a granular fill, but you should follow the recommendations of the waterproofing contractor. Climate conditions, soil types, and the topography of the site might call for extra measures to keep water away from the foundation.

The backfill should be compacted in small lifts. This will prevent excessive setting which can cause negative grades around the foundation as well as sinking exterior stairs, driveways, and patios.  Many contractors do not like to compact the backfill, claiming that it is unnecessary or could harm the foundation.

It can cause harm if done too soon or heavy equipment is brought too close to the foundation. To prevent problems, backfilling should wait until the first floor is framed and sheathed (or adequately braced) to resist lateral loads from the backfill, soil compaction, and equipment loads.

It is important to slope the backfill away from the foundation for about 10 ft. to move water quickly away from the foundation.  Read more on Drainage Around the Foundation.

Subslab Moisture Control

The pore spaces in the soil around your home are filled with water vapor (or liquid water if the soil is saturated). Since the water vapor typically measures 100% relative humidity, the moisture will readily pass through the slab into your home unless a vapor barrier is installed. If the concrete is placed directly on the soil, water will also wick into the concrete slab by capillary action.

The address these problems, a minimum 4 in. layer of coarse gravel or compacted crushed stone below the basement floor has become the standard practice in modern construction and required by code.

Subslab vapor barrier. The use of a polyethylene vapor barrier below the slab has also become common in recent years, although some concrete contractors still resist this. Adding the vapor barrier below the slab complicates their work because it slows down the setting of the slab and has been blamed, in some cases, for curling of slab edges.

In response, some contractors like to place a few inches of sand or gravel over the polyurethane to speed up drying, but this tends to trap water and cause other problems. In most cases, however, placing the concrete directly over the plastic is becoming the norm and concrete contractors have adjusted their workflow and concrete mixes to make this work.

A subslab vapor barrier is now a requirement of many glue-down floor coverings since some cannot tolerate high moisture levels in the slab. Whether required or not, nearly all basement floor coverings will benefit from the dryer floor the drier substrate provided by a vapor barrier.

It’s best to use heavy plastic sheeting  at least 10-mil thick unless you are using one of the reinforced plastics approved for this application. It is easy to damage a thin layer of standard poly while prepping for and placing the concrete.

Subslab insulation. If you ever intend to finish the basement, or wish to store materials there without concerns about mold and musty odors, you should strongly consider adding a layer of foam insulation below the slab. Energy savings may be modest, but the insulation will warm the floor enough to prevent condensation and moisture problems when warm, moist air contacts the cool concrete surface. Read more on Basement Insulation.

Sump Pumps

Many contractors build a sump pit in every basement as a precautionary measure (as well as a stub through the basement floor for a radon system if it’s ever needed). The cost to do these things during construction is minimal; not so when you have to drill or cut through concrete later.

Sealed, gasketed lid on sump pit helps keep radon and moisture out of the basement. Source US DOE

A gasketed cover on this sump pit prevents radon and excess moisture from entering the basement. Source: US DOE

If the site is relatively dry and well-drained, you may never need to install a pump. If it is very wet or has a high seasonal water table, a full basement may be a poor choice. If it’s somewhere in the middle, you may want to install a sump pit and pump as a precaution.

Sump basin. Make sure the pump you buy has sufficient capacity and that the basin is large enough to fit a submersible pump and provide space to store water as it is pumped.  The typical basin is 18 in. in diameter by 24 in. deep, which holds over 20 gallons of water. If the sump is too deep, the bottom may fill with water during the rainy season and you will be pumping day and night for no good reason.

Pump quality. Don’t skimp on the pump. Cheap pumps are prone to fail when you need them most. The best pumps are cast-iron, rather than plastic. No-screen designs that can handle smalls solids will help prevent clogs as it is hard to keep all dirt and debris out of your system. Finally, look for pumps with a mechanical float switch designed to prevent jams.

Backup pump. If your pump runs frequently, check to make sure that your gutters, site drainage, hardscapes, and other features around the house are directing water away – not towards – your foundation. If everything checks out, you may have a high water table that gets higher seasonally or after a heavy rain. In that case, you should consider a battery-powered backup pump to kick in if the power fails during a big storm. That’s exactly when you don’t want your pump to fail. Make sure you get the right type of battery and charger to provide at least two days of continuous use.

Discharge.   It is critical that the sump discharges the water far enough away from the house that it does not end up back where it started. The discharge point should be at least 10 ft. away, with a splash block, assuming that the site has a modest slope away from the foundation. On a dead flat site, you will want to go farther.

Often you can discharge near a swale or storm sewer designed to handle this type of load. In some areas you can tie directly to a storm sewer with a permit. Local codes govern how far your discharge point needs to be from property lines and roads. You don’t want to cause grief for neighbors.

The end of the pipe should be protected from critters by hardware cloth or terminate in a small pit of gravel or crushed stone – a mini-drywell. You can also get creative and put the water to good use in a raingarden or collect it in a barrel for gardening.

Testing. At least once a year, before the rainy season hits, dump a 5-gallon bucket of water in your sump pit to see what happens. If it quickly pumps the water away, you’re good to go. If not, get it working before you need it.

Related Articles
Basement Insulation
Managing Roof & Yard Runoff
Waterproofing & Dampproofing
Site Evaluation
Basement Leakage FAQs


  1. JoAnne Rains says:

    Water Leaking Through Garage Slab

    I bought a new house a year ago. At about 3 months after moving in, I noticed cracks running all over the garage concrete floor. There has been moisture coming up through some of the cracks over the past 9 months. Now I have found a white powdery substance where the moisture comes through. I live in the Northern Miss. I am concerned about this and need some advise on it.

    • buildingadvisor says:

      The white power is called “efflorescence” and is caused by salts carried out of the concrete by the water and then deposited on the surface when the water evaporates. Efflorescence is pretty easy to remove when it is still damp, but very difficult to remove one it has hardened. You can try a mild acid solution, such as vinegar and water, but stronger chemicals may be required.

      The more important problems are the cracking and water leakage. A moderate number of tight cracks in a concrete slab is normal. These are shrinkage cracks which occur in most concrete slabs as the concrete cures. Cracks are more of a concern where cracks are numerous, larger than about 1/16”, or uneven — where the two sides of the crack are uneven in height, indicating movement of the slab. These are considered structural cracks.

      Structural cracking can be caused by some combination of weak concrete, inadequate reinforcement, or poor soil conditions below the slab. For example, if soil “fill” was added below the slab but not properly compacted, then it can settle later leaving the slab unsupported. Sometimes a slab can be repaired, but may need to be replaced if the cracking is severe. Or you can choose to live with a cracked garage floor.

      If there is water collecting below the slab, it will find its way through any cracks and can also wick its way through the concrete which is very porous to water.

      If the problem occurs primarily after a heavy rain, then the source is most likely surface water that needs better management. The slope of the land around the garage may be directing the water toward the building. You may be able to regrade the soil to slope away from the garage. Also make sure that any gutters and downspouts move water safely away from the garage (and house foundation).

      If management of surface water is not adequate, you may need to have someone dig a trench around the garage and install footing drains to carry water away from the slab. If the problem is a high water table, a sump pump may be required to keep the floor dry. If you’re not sure of the source of the water, dig a hole a few feet deep along the side of the garage and cover the top to keep out surface water.

      If you have a high water table, the hole will fill to that level. If it rises after a rain, despite blocking all surface water, then your only practical solution may be a sump pump.

      If the water source is constant and not related to rainfall, it is possible that a broken water pipe is the cause. A plumber can help you diagnose and repair this type of leak.

      You can read more at these links on surface drainage and subsurface drainage.

      Best of luck in solving these problems. You are lucky if the problems are limited to the garage and not affecting your house foundation, where water leakage can lead to mold and damage to finish materials.

  2. Full Basement With Shallow Water Table?

    My wife and I are looking into a lot right now that’s just under a full acre, very rectangular in shape. On one side of the property is somewhat steeply sloped, the slope runs the length of the longer sides of the lot. The other half, so to speak, is virtually flat, with a 4-6 foot ditch with a creek. So if you’re looking down the length of the lot, on the right half it is virtually flat piece of land with a slope starting halfway on your left up to the left side of the property, running the length of it. It is all grass covered, no trees to clear or anything. Our builder had concerns about a possibly high water table, so the realtor had a driller come to a deep hole test. Here’s what the testing results stated:

    The site in question was fairly level with a shallow 4-5 foot deep ditch. There is no evidence of surface ponding or up-slope groundwater infiltration. Borings were drilled within the anticipated building area. boring B-1 was drilled at about the center of the eastern (creek side) parallel with the existing ditch line and Boring B-2 was drilled at the approximate center of the Western side which parallels the existing slope. The borings were each drilled to depths of 16 feet using 2 1/4 inch ID Hollow-Stem Augers and terminated at auger refusal in hard, dry, shale bedrock. The basic geologic profile consisted of reddish-brown silty clay grading with depth to weathered shale becoming more competent with depth. A softer and wet zone was encountered in both locations at a depth of about 4-6 feet below ground surface.

    The results then showed initial water encounter B-1 at 4.5 feet BGS, B-2 none. Water level at end of boring B-1 12.5 feet BGS, B-2 none. Water level at 24 hours B-1, 2 feet BGS, B-2 3.25 feet BGS.

    I also have the boring logs and when I spoke to the driller, he told me I should take this info to our builders but I haven’t heard anything yet from them. Here’s what he told me over the phone: The soft area corresponding to the creek, water is coming through from the run and at the hill. There is that 4-6 foot soft wet spot, but nice and hard below, and above and below that wet zone it was ok. It’s hard to say exactly where the water is coming from, but he didn’t feel it’s from the hill as those initial samples were very dry. Overall, it was dry above and below the 4-6 feet. He left the holes open overnight and they filled up to around the creek level, which leads him to believe that’s the water source. It’s good solid dirt below and very dry, and due to the bedrock very firm and can hold a lot of weight.

    Also, all utilities are laid in at this site, including natural gas, water, sewer, and electric. We don’t need a septic system, but we had concerns due to the basement of the house. I was hoping you might give me some insight as to what we might do with this lot.

    Thanks so much!!

    • buildingadvisor says:

      It is possible to build a dry house on a wet site, but it requires special expertise and extra expense. Building a full foundation below the water table is especially risky. You would need to put in a full waterproofing system backed up by a subsurface drainage system, most likely with one or more sump pumps. You would want to carefully design a system that resists clogging up with silt over time and include cleanouts that provide access to clear the underground pipes if they ever get clogged. You may also need curtain drains or other subsurface drainage to help keep water away from the foundation area.

      The first step is establishing the seasonal high water table. Since your test holes filled with water overnight to the level of the stream, it’s reasonable to assume that you have found the water table, at least for the time of year that the boring was taken. The soil below may be dry because it is dense and relatively impermeable. Many streams are fed, in part, from seepage of groundwater. However this is only an educated guess. For a definitive answer, you might want to have a geotech or soils engineer take a look at your site and boring logs. “Mottling” patterns in the soil are typically used as evidence to help determine the seasonal high-water table.

      If you are comfortable with a slab-on-grade home, you should be OK, as long as the slab is a minimum of two feet above the seasonal high water table and you provide for good drainage under and around the slab. It is also important to install a durable sub-slab vapor barrier directly below the concrete. If your slab requires frost walls that extend below the water table, your contractor will need to keep water out of the formwork until the concrete sets up. But otherwise, this should not be a problem.

      You can raise the slab higher if necessary by bringing in fill, but make sure that the sub-grade is well-compacted. Use a minimum of 4-6 in. of free-draining aggregate below the slab, with gravity drainage to daylight if possible. You will want perimeter drains of perforated pipe (also called “French drains”) around the perimeter of the slab, and should also consider placing perforated drains under the slab. If you cannot discharge the drains to daylight by gravity, you will need a sump pump and a suitable place to discharge the water. On a very wet site, consider using a thicker layer of aggregate of a foot or more. This provides a reservoir for water to collect and drain (or be pumped) away before reaching the slab.

      If you want to build a full foundation, with the slab below the seasonal water table, you will have ongoing challenges keeping the space dry. I would be especially concerned if you are planning on finishing any of the below-grade space. You may end up running sump pumps much of the year and still may find high moisture levels in the basement (and ultimately in the home above).

      One option is to pull the house out of the ground a few feet so the basement slab is above the water table, but that would require bringing in a lot of fill and create landscaping challenges.

      If you are determined to put in a full basement, I would start with an engineer’s drainage plan for the site and a builder who will guarantee in writing a dry basement for a number of years. Groundwater is a complex topic studied by hydrologists and engineers, and successful drainage of wet sites is tricky. If you get it wrong, it is difficult and expensive (or impossible) to fix. So spending several hundred dollars up front for professional expertise would be money well spent.

      You can read more on site evaluation and building a dry foundation at these links:
      Evaluating Soils & Site Drainage
      Managing Roof Runoff & Yard Drainage
      Foundation Waterproofing & Dampproofing

  3. Drainage Channel Along Basement wall

    I live in a 1911 era Craftsman-style, bungalow home. My basement has a 2-in-wide channel that runs the length of the house, where the basement floor meets the wall. The home inspector called this a “perking channel”. It fills with free-flowing water in a heavy rain, and exits through a pipe that slopes downward until till it meets the sewer pipe. I have always wondered where does the ground water come from and how is it directed into the perking channel? Also, what does it look like under my foundations after more than 100 years of the ground water running into and out of my basement by means of this channel?

    • buildingadvisor says:

      While I am not familiar with the term “perking channel”, I am familiar with similar approaches used as a retrofit to manage basement water problems. Often the water is seeping through the basement walls or entering at the juncture where the basement floor meets the walls. With concrete block walls, the water can easily seep in though the cores in the block.

      It the leakage only occurs in a heavy rain, the source is most likely runoff from your roof and the area immediately around you house. The water is likely running down along your foundation wall and seeping through cracks or entering at the juncture where the floor meets the wall.

      Footing drains can be added outside the foundation, but this is difficult and costly as a retrofit due to the extensive excavation required around the foundation.

      There are several commercial products for creating internal gutter systems – either sitting on top of the basement slab or recessed, like your system. One example of a recessed system is Water Guard, which requires that a trench is cut around the perimeter of the floor. It sounds like you have a custom-made version of the same approach.

      Whether the drains are inside or outside the foundation, the water must conducted safely away from the house through a sloping solid pipe. Depending on the site conditions, the water can be conducted away to daylight (on a downward slope), to a drywall, a storm sewer if allowed, or to a collection area with a sump pump. The water has to go somewhere where it will not flood your or your neighbor’s house. On very flat sites with poor drainage this can be a challenge.

      Before taking these expensive measures, however, the first step should always be to address the water at the source – before it reaches the foundation. Often you can use a combination of gutters, downspouts, splashblocks, and, if necessary, regrading of land around the house, to direct runoff away from the foundation. This usually can reduce or eliminate the problem.
      Watching how the water flows around the house during a heavy rain can tell you a lot about water problems and solutions. Sometimes the solution is amazingly fast, simple, and cheap – like a well-placed splash block.

      If these steps do not solve the problem – or you are unable to fix grading issues due to existing structures and landscaping, then you can use one of the approaches mentioned above, like the one you have in place.

      If you system has been working for 100 years and the foundation has not cracked or badly settled, then it is unlikely that that the water is causing any damage. Most likely there is a layer of porous stone around and under your foundation that provides a stable channel for the water. Problems can occur, however, where there is excessive runoff is not well-managed and washes away soil under the foundation footings.



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